Zaini Said, Goh Lei Kheng


Previous research has been done on mindfulness and nursing stress but no review has been done to highlight the most up-to-date findings, to justify the recommendation of mindfulness training for the nursing field. The present paper aims to review the relevant studies, derive conclusions, and discuss future direction of research in this field. A total of 19 research papers were reviewed. The majority was intervention studies on the effects of mindfulness-training programs on nursing stress. Higher mindfulness is correlated with lower nursing stress. Mindfulness-based training programs were found to have significant positive effects on nursing stress and psychological well-being. The studies were found to have non-standardized intervention methods, inadequate research designs, small sample size, and lack of systematic follow-up on the sustainability of treatment effects, limiting the generalizability of the results. There is also a lack of research investigation into the underlying mechanism of action of mindfulness on nursing stress. Future research that addresses these limitations is indicated.


mindfulness, nurse, nursing stress

Full Text:



Akobeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding randomised controlled trials. Archive of Disease in Childhood, 90, 840-844.

American Holistic Nurses Association. (2012). Who we are. Retrieved from: http://www.ahna.org/AboutUs/tabid/1158/Default.aspx

Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.

Bazarko, D., Cate, R.A., Azocar, F., Kreitzer, M.J. (2013). The Impact of an Innovative Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on the Health and Well-Being of Nurses Employed in a Corporate Setting. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 28, 107–133.

Beddoe, A.E., Murphy, S.O. (2004).Does mindfulness decrease stress and foster empathy among nursing students? Journal of Nursing Education, 43(7), 305-312.

Beth Elisa, R. (2007). Registered nurses practicing mindfulness: The lived experience. Wisconsin, Marian College of Fond Du Lac.

Bormann, J.E., Becker, S., Gershwin, M., Kelly, A., Pada, L., Smith, T. L. & Gifford, A. L. (2006). Relationship of frequent mantram repetition to emotional and spiritual well-being in healthcare workers. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 37(5), 218-224.

Brady, S., O'Connor, N., Burgermeister, D., & Hanson, P. (2012). The impact of mindfulness meditation in promoting a culture of safety on an acute psychiatric unit. Perspectives In Psychiatric Care, 48 (3), 129–137.

Brown, K.W. & Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-48.

Chen, Y., Yang, X., Wang, L. & Zhang, X. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of the effects of brief mindfulness meditation on anxiety symptoms and systolic blood pressure in Chinese nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 32(10), 1166-1172.

Coffey, K.A, Hartman, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13, 79–91.

Cohen-Katz, J., Wiley, S.D., Capuano, T., Baker, D.M., Shapiro, S. (2005). The Effects of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction on Nurse Stress and Burnout, Part II: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study. Holistic Nurse Practice, 18(6), 302-308.

Davies, W. (2008). Mindful meditation: healing burnout in critical care nursing. Holistic Nursing Practice, 22(1), 32-36.

Easwaran, E. (1998). The Mantram Handbook (4th, revised ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press.

Emilia, Z.A. & Noor Hassim, I. (2007). Work-related stress and coping: A survey on medical and surgical nurses in a Malaysian teaching hospital. Jabatan Kesihatan Masyarakat 13(1), 56-76.

Foureur, M., Besley, K., Burton, G., Yu, N. & Krisp, J. (2013). Enhancing the resilience of nurses and midwives: Pilot of a mindfulness based program for increased health, sense of coherence and decreased depression, anxiety and stress. Contemporary Nurse, 45(1), 114–125.

Germer, C. K., Siegel, R. D., & Fulton, P. R. (2005). Mindfulness and psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press

Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35–43.

Hee, K.L., Subramaniam, P., Rahmat, N. & Phang, C.K. (2014). The effects of mindfulness training program on reducing stress and promoting well‑being among nurses in critical care units. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(3), 22-31.

Horner, J.K., Piercy, B.S., Eure, L. & Woodard, E.K. (2014). A pilot study to evaluate mindfulness as a strategy to improve inpatient nurse and patient experiences. Applied Nursing Research.

Intan, N. & Mohd. A. (2003). Faktor-Faktor Tekanan Kerja di Kalangan Jururawat: Kajian di Hospital Lipis, Pahang. [Unpublished thesis]. Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Delta.

Kang, Y.S., Choi, S.Y., Ryu, E. (2009). The effectiveness of a stress coping program based on mindfulness meditation on the stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by nursing students in Korea. Nurse Education Today, 29(5), 538-543.

Larrabee, J.H., Ostrow, C.L., Withrow, M.L., Janney, M.A., Hobbs, G.R. & Burant, C. (2004). Predictors of patient satisfaction with inpatient hospital nursing care. Research in Nursing & Health, 27(4), 254–268.

Lee, S. & Ellis, N. (1990). The design of a stress-management programme for nursing personnel. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15(8), 946-961.

Lua, P.L. & Imilia, I. (2011). Work-Related Stress Among Healthcare Providers of Various Sectors in Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Psychiatry Early, 9(11), 1-15.

Mackenzie, C., Poulin, P., & Seidman-Carlson, R. (2006). A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Applied Nursing Research, 19(2), 105-109.

Michie, S. & Williams, S. (2003). Reducing work-related psychological ill health and sickness absence: A systematic literature review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, 3–9.

O’Brien, D.A. (2013). Using mindfulness meditation intermixed with humor to reduce anxiety among nursing students during clinical practice. [Published doctoral thesis]. Capella University. Minnesota. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 142.

O’Henley, O., Curzio, J. & Hunt, J. (1997). Stress and sickness absence: What is and isn’t known. Managing Clinical Nursing, 1, 87–96.

Penn State School of Nursing. (2007). Perception vs. reality. Supporting underrepresented and vulnerable populations, 8-11.

Penque, S. (2009). Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Effect on Registered Nurses. [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. University of Minnesota, Minnesota.

Phang, C. K., & Oei, T. P. S. (2012). From mindfulness to meta-mindfulness: Further integration of meta-mindfulness concept and strategies into cognitive-behavioral therapy. Mindfulness, 3, 104–116.

Praissman, S. (2008), Mindfulness-based stress reduction: A literature review and clinician’s guide. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 20, 212–216.

Pipe, T.B., Bortz, J.J., Dueck, A., Pendergast, D., Buchda, V. & Summers, J. (2009). Nurse leader mindfulness meditation program for stress management: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39, (3), 130-137.

Ryff, C., & Keyes, C. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.

Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.

Sharifah Zainiyah, S.Y., Afiq, I.M., Chow, C.Y. & Siti Sara, D. (2011). Stress and its associated factors amongst ward nurses in a public hospital Kuala Lumpur. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 11(1), 78-85.

Smith, S.A. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: An Intervention to Enhance the Effectiveness of Nurses' Coping With Work-Related Stress [Abstract]. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge.

Wan Salwina, W.I., Raynuha, M., Ainsah, O., Idayu, B.I. & Aniza, I. (2009). Stress and Coping Styles: The Experience of Nursing Staff Working At Two Public Hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Medicine & Health, 4(2), 101-107.

Yong, J., Kim, J., Park, J., Seo, I., & Swinton, J. (2011). Effects of a spirituality training program on the spiritual and psychosocial well-being of hospital middle manager nurses in Korea. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 42 (6), 280-288.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Program Studi Magister Psikologi, Pascasarjana Universitas Medan Area
Jalan Setia Budi No. 79 B, Tj. Rejo, Medan Sunggal, Kota Medan, Sumatera Utara 20112 http://ojs.uma.ac.id/index.php/analitika dan Email: analitika@uma.ac.id
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License