ANALISIS PERPINDAHAN KALOR KONDENSOR PADA PROSES DISTILASI BIOETANOL SEBAGAI BIOFUEL DARI CAMPURAN LIMBAH BUAH SALAK DENGAN LIMBAH AIR KELAPA

Muhammad Idris Hutasuhut(1*),


(1) Universitas Harapan Medan
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


 

Cadangan bahan bakar fosil Indonesia akan segera habis. Indonesia harus segera melakukan inovasi dan temuan bahan bakar alternative untuk menggatikan bahan bakar fosil tersebut untuk menghindari krisis dan isu lingkungan. Biomassa sebagai salah satu sumber bahan bakar alternative yang tersedia dalam jumlah banyak di Indonesia. Melalui beberapa tahapan proses biomassa dapat dirubah menjadi bahan bakar bioethanol. Salah satu proses yang dimaksud dengan cara termokimia yaitu distilasi. Distilasi merupakan proses pemisahan fasa berdasarkan titik didih fasa itu sendiri. Uap mengalir dalam pipa masuk ke dalam kondensor dengan ukuran Ø 8.89x10-2 m dan panjang L 3.4 x10-2. Didalam kondesnor terjadi perpindahan panas secara konveksi. Perbedaan temperature pada proses kondensasi antara fluida uap yang mengalir dalam pipa dengan fluida air pendingin yang mendinginkan dinding kondesor direkam menggunakan perankat akuisisi. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perpindahan panas konveksi pada kondensor dan mengitung hasil luaran bioethanol secara teoritis berdasarkan massa kondensat uap fermentor. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh perpindahan panas konveksi sebesar 0.2752 kW. Laju massa uap fermentor 1.192 x 10-4 kg/s, koefisien perpindahan kalor kondensasi 340.7161 W/m2 OC, laju massa kondensat 1.01x 10-5 kg/s. Laju massa kondensat yang diperoleh 8% merupakan hasil luaran biofuel atau bioethanol.


Abstract

Indonesia's fossil fuel reserves will soon run out. Indonesia must immediately innovate and search alternative fuels to replace fossil fuels to avoid crises and environmental issues. Biomass as one of the alternative sources of fuel available in large quantities in Indonesia. Through several stages, the process of biomass can be converted into bioethanol fuel. One of the processes referred to by thermochemical methods is distillation. Distillation is a phase separation process based on the boiling point itself. Steam flows in the pipe into the condenser with a size of Ø 8.89x10-2 m and length L 3.4 x10-2. In the condenser, there is convection heat transfer. The temperature difference in the condensation process between the vapor fluid flowing in the pipe and the cooling water fluid that cools the condenser wall is recorded using the acquisition role. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the convection heat transfer in the condenser and to calculate the bioethanol output theoretically based on the mass of the fermentor vapor condensate. From the analysis results obtained convection heat transfer of 0.2752 kW. The fermentor vapor mass rate is 1,192 x 10-4 kg / s, the condensation heat transfer coefficient is 340.7161 W / m2 OC, the condensate mass rate is 1.01x 10-5 kg / s. The condensate mass rate obtained by 8% is the result of biofuel or bioethanol output.

 



Keywords


Convection, Condensation, Bioethanol

Full Text:

PDF

References


Administration, I. T. (2010). Assessment Report : Indonesia. Renewable Energy, 2, 1–10.

Hao Chen a, Jingjing He a, X. Z. b a. (2018). Engine combustion and emission fuelled with natural gas: A review. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 49(3), 929–939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joei.2018.06.005

Heri, N., Deden, S., Bambang, P., & Mustika, P. (n.d.). Outlook Energi Indonesia 2016. (A. Saleh, Ed.). Jakarta: Dewan Energi Nasional.

Heri, N., Deden, S., Bambang, P., & Mustika, P. (2015). Indonesia Energy Outlook 2015. (A. Saleh, Ed.). Jakarta: Dewan Energi Nasional.

Homma, H. H., Homma, H. H., & Idris, M. (2014). Numerical Analysis on Wood Pyrolysis in Pre-Vacuum Chamber. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 2014(September), 149–160. https://doi.org/10.4236/jsbs.2014.43014

Liu, G., Wang, J., Chen, T., Liu, J., & Yan, J. (2017). Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of a condenser in the presence of air. Applied Thermal Engineering, 120, 170–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.03.139

Marle, C. P., & Craig, W. S. (2011). Termodinamika Teknik. In Simarmata Lemeda (Ed.), Themodynamic for Administration, I. T. (2010). Assessment Report : Indonesia. Renewable Energy, 2, 1–10.

Hao Chen a, Jingjing He a, X. Z. b a. (2018). Engine combustion and emission fuelled with natural gas: A review. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 49(3), 929–939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joei.2018.06.005

Heri, N., Deden, S., Bambang, P., & Mustika, P. (n.d.). Outlook Energi Indonesia 2016. (A. Saleh, Ed.). Jakarta: Dewan Energi Nasional.

Heri, N., Deden, S., Bambang, P., & Mustika, P. (2015). Indonesia Energy Outlook 2015. (A. Saleh, Ed.). Jakarta: Dewan Energi Nasional.

Homma, H. H., Homma, H. H., & Idris, M. (2014). Numerical Analysis on Wood Pyrolysis in Pre-Vacuum Chamber. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 2014(September), 149–160. https://doi.org/10.4236/jsbs.2014.43014

Liu, G., Wang, J., Chen, T., Liu, J., & Yan, J. (2017). Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of a condenser in the presence of air. Applied Thermal Engineering, 120, 170–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.03.139

Marle, C. P., & Craig, W. S. (2011). Termodinamika Teknik. In Simarmata Lemeda (Ed.), Themodynamic for Engineers (Kedua, p. 43). Jakarta: Erlangga.

Megawati. (2015). Bioetanol Generasi Kedua. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Prabir, B. (2010). Biomass gasification and pyrolysis. Comprehensive Renewable Energy (Vol. 5). Burlington: Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-087872-0.00514-X

Rama, P., Kartika, N., Praptiningsih Adinurani, G., Dwi, S., Sigit, S., & Roy, H. (2008). Bioetanol Ubi Kayu: Bahan Bakar Masa Depan. Revista De Logística (Kelima). Jakarta: PT. Agromedia Pustaka.

Walujodjati, A. (2006). Perpindahan panas konveksi paksa, 2, 21–24.

Yunus, C. A., & Michael, B. A. (2006). Appendix 1 (Fifth Edit, pp. 909–999). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-42548-5.50011-8




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31289/jmemme.v2i2.2006

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JMEMME: JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, MANUFACTURES, MATERIALS AND ENERGY
Program Studi Teknik Mesin, Fakultas Tenik, Universitas Medan Area
Universitas Medan Area, Jalan Kolam No. 1, Pasar V, Medan Estate, Sumatera Utara http://ojs.uma.ac.id/index.php/jmemme dan Email: jmemme@uma.ac.id
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License