The Urban Warming Causes and Adaptation in Tropical Cities

M. Kali Hamzah Siregar(1*), Muhammad Sani Roychansyah(2),

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Urban warming indicate that urban would be hotter than rural areas because of the urban heat island. Unfortunately, Tropical urban people are considered to be used to hot temperature. In addition, various research indicate that this condition may affect to thermal discomfort and other problems for human life. Therefore, this research will describe and explain the causes of urban warming in tropical cities and the adaptation mechanism conducted by citizen so that city government can find better solution to adapt with urban warming. To get better overview, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Medan City, Indonesia become the comparison sample. The data derived from previous research result and observation using google earth satellite imagery which are analyzed descriptively and spatially. The result shows that both cities experience urban warming because of the land use and urban morphology. but, regarding with adaptation, Medan City still adapt traditionally like watering the road but in Kuala Lumpur, City government prioritize the negotiation and technological approach. 

Full Text:



Aflaki, Ardalan, Mahsan Mirnezhad, Amirhosein Ghaffarianhoseini, Ali Ghaffarianhoseini, Hossein Omrany, Zhi-Hua Wang, Hashem Akbari (2017), Urban heat island mitigation strategies: A state-of-the-art review on Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong

Arifwidodo, Sigit Dwinanto, Orana Chandrasiri (2015), Energy Procedia, Urban Heat Island and Household Energy Consumption in Bangkok, Thailand

Boduch, Michael, Fincher, Warren (2009), Standards of human comfort: relative and absolute. The University of Texas at Austin.

Gency Y., Ihara T., 2009. Environmental impact assessment of urban air temperature increase based on endpoint-type life cycle impact (part 1) – its framework, The Seventh International Conference on Urban Climate Preprints, (in press).

Ichinose, Toshiaki, Futhoshi Matsumoto, Kumi Kataoka (2008), Counteracting Urban Heat Islands in Japan, Urban Energy Transition, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-045341-5.00015-3

Karyono, Tri. H, (2009), Eco-settlement: Permukiman Tropis Berkonsep Hijau Ramah Lingkungan.

Karyono, Tri. H, (2011) Thermal comfort in the tropical south east asiacountry, Architecture Science Review.

Karyono, Tri. H, (2015) Predicting Comfort Temperature in Indonesia, an Initial Step to Reduce Cooling Energy Consumption.

Klein, Joyce, Rob Crauderueff, Urban Heat, Island Mitigation, Can Improve, New York, and Citable Link. 2017. “Urban Heat Island Mitigation Can Improve New York City’s Environment: Research on the Impacts of Mitigation Strategies on the Urban Environment.”

KeTTHA – Ministry of Energy Green Technology and Water of Malaysia, 2011

Lin, C., W. Chen, P. Chang, and Y. Sheng, 2011: Impact of the Urban Heat Island Effect on Precipitation over a Complex Geographic Environment in Northern Taiwan. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 339–353,

LCS, Low Carbon Society Blueprint for Iskandar Malaysia 2025 (2013)

Meterological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency. 2017. “Medan City in Number.”

Morris, K. I., Chan, A., Salleh, S. A., et al. (2016). Numerical study on the urbanization of Putrajaya and its interaction with the local climate, over a decade. Urban Climate, 16, 1e24. Available at S2212095516300062.

Newton, Kenneth, Jan W Van Deth (2010), Foundations of Comparative Politics, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press.

Paatero, J, 2018, Renewables in Urban Environment, Aalto University

Radhi, Hassan, Sharples, Stephen and Assem, Essam (2015) Impact of urban heat islands on the thermal comfort and cooling energy demand of artificial islands-A case study of AMWAJ Islands in Bahrain. SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY, 19. 310 - 318.

Schoetter et al. (2017), Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2).

Shahidan, M.F., Shariff, M.K.S, Jones, P., Salleh, E., Abdullah, A.M., A comparison of Mesua ferrea L. and Hura crepitans L. for shade creation and radiation modification in improving thermal comfort. Landscape and Urban Planning, 97, 168-181 2010.

Shahid, Shamsuddin, Sahar Hadipor, Xiaojun Wang, (2017), Impacts and adaptation to climate change in Malaysian real estate.

Siregar,M.K.H. 2019, Adapstation towards The Increased Urban Temperature : Case Study of Medan City, Indonesia Thesis. Keio University, Japan.

Siregar,M.K.H. 2012, Penyediaan Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kota Medan Skripsi. Institut Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri.

Srivanit, Manaf, Kazunori Hokao, Pawinee Lamtrakul (2014), Classifying Thermal Climate Zones to Support Urban Environmental Planning and Management in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Program Studi Arsitektur, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Medan Area
Universitas Medan Area, Jalan Kolam No. 1, Pasar V, Medan Estate, Sumatera Utara dan Email:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License